It is an irregular quadrilateral in shape, and its shores, save on the west, are deeply indented. 547–61 in : Dumony, H.J. Lake Victoria receives 80 percent of its water from direct rainfall. In terms of contributed water, this makes Lake Victoria the principal source of the longest branch of the Nile. European Investment Bank started the project in 2013 with the aim of protecting the environmental health of the lake, through improved water and sanitation to the towns whose pollution is part of the degradation of the lake. Speke accomplished this in 1858, while on an expedition with Richard Francis Burton to locate the source of the Nile River. Heavy winds and rains along with their subsequent waves may have also damaged the plants during this same time frame. The water since at least 12,000 years ago drained across a natural rock weir.  Initially the population of the Nile perch was relatively low, but a drastic increase happened, peaking in the 1980s, followed by a decline starting in the 1990s.. Warmolts (25 May 2015). London: Crown Agents for the Colonies. , Before the mass extinction that has occurred among the lake's cichlids in the last 50 years, about 90 percent of the native fish species in the lake were haplochromines.  The first introduction of Nile perch to the region, done by the Uganda Game and Fisheries Department (then part of the colonial government) and local African fish guards, happened upstream of Murchison Falls directly after the completion of the Owen Falls Dam in 1954. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to counteract against the rapidly deteriorating water quality in the Lake Victoria Basin (LVB).  During its geological history, Lake Victoria went through changes ranging from its present shallow depression, through to what may have been a series of much smaller lakes. Its greatest length from north to south is 210 miles (337 km), its greatest breadth 150 miles (240 km). Lake Victoria Fisheries Organization (2016). Ask your question. (See East African Rift System.)  Some of these, including tilapia and ningu (Labeo victorianus), had already declined in the first half of the 20th century due to overfishing. The countries will lead you to a complete list of the members in a given country and their brief profile. Join now. The abundance of aquatic life is not the only dependent of the lake: more than thirty million people in Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda rely on the lake for its natural resources.  Average evaporation on the lake is between 2.0 and 2.2 metres (6.6 and 7.2 ft) per year, almost double the precipitation of riparian areas.  There is little doubt that Haplochromis played an important role in returning detritus and plankton back into solution. One of the Scorched by climate change and drained by industrial farms, the country’s most important river system Now let's learn about Africa's other 8 largest lakes in Africa. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/place/Lake-Victoria, University of Texas, Dallas - Lake Victoria, UN-Water Activity Information System - Lake Victoria, Victoria, Lake - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Lake Victoria - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Book Lake Victoria Country Home, Entebbe on Tripadvisor: See traveler reviews, 5 candid photos, and great deals for Lake Victoria Country Home at Tripadvisor. , The Lamadi water scheme is a water and sanitation project that serves Mwanza and the satellite towns of Lamadi, Misungwi, Magu, Bukoba, and Musoma on the bank of Lake Victoria. At the lake’s southeastern corner is Speke Gulf, and at the southwestern corner Emin Pasha Gulf. The subsequent decrease in the number of algae-eating fish allows the algae to grow at an alarming rate, thereby choking the lake. ... Countries. At the same time it was warned that this could present a serious danger to the native fish species and required extensive research into possible ecological effects before done. Featuring room service, this property also provides guests with a playground. Uganda has 45 percent of Lake Victoria, while Kenya earns only 6 percent. , Since the 1900s, Lake Victoria ferries have been an important means of transport between Uganda, Tanzania, and Kenya. Uganda General Information Map of Uganda Kampala Kibale National Park Queen Elizabeth National Park Murchison Falls National Park Bwindi Impenetrable National Park. For a relaxing, pleasurable lake vacation in East Africa, we recommend a visit to Lake Victoria, the largest of the Great African Lakes and the second largest freshwater lake in the world. For a relaxing, pleasurable lake vacation in East Africa, we recommend a visit to Lake Victoria, the largest of the Great African Lakes and the second largest freshwater lake in the world. Lake Victoria, shared by Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda, was named after the Queen of England and is the world's largest tropical lake and the second largest freshwater lake. Uganda has 45 percent of Lake Victoria, while Kenya earns only 6 percent. Km. Featuring room service, this property also provides guests with a playground. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Jäger, J., Bohunovsky, L., Radosh, L., & Sustainability Project.  The Williams' mud turtle is restricted to Lake Victoria and other lakes, rivers, and swamps in the upper Nile basin. The lake’s deeply indented northern coast is flat and bare.  Greater growth was observed in the northern part of the lake, in relatively protected areas, which may be linked to current and weather patterns and could also be due to the climate and water conditions, which are more suitable to the plants growth (as there are large urban areas to the north end of the lake, in Uganda).  Such adaptions include a larger gill area (adaption for oxygen-poor water), changes in the feeding apparatus, changes to the eyes (giving them a better sight in turbid water) and smaller head/larger caudal peduncle (allowing faster swimming). Without oxygen, any aerobic life (such as fish) cannot exist in the deeper parts of the lake, forcing all life to exist within a narrow range of depth. Oxygen concentrations in hypolimnetic waters (i.e. , Starting in the 1950s, several species have been introduced to Lake Victoria where they have become invasive and a prime reason for the extinction of many endemic haplochromine cichlids. There are islands with amazing wildlife on the lake, beautiful landscapes around the lake and there are numerous accommodations where you stay and enjoy the scenery and cool breeze from the fresh water lake.  Another tragedy occurred recently on 20 September 2018 that involved the passagers ferry MV Nyerere from Tanzania that caused the deaths of over 200 people.. The lake’s only outlet is the Victoria Nile, which exits from the northern coast. The lake exhibits eutrophic conditions. The lake includes many species of fish that inhabit nowhere else, especially cichlids. And that is why we are interested in how much is being abstracted by those countries” Tindimugaya explained.  By itself, this vegetative matter decays slowly. It is located in East Africa between the countries Tanzania, Uganda and Kenya. The lake’s surface is 3,720 feet (1,134 metres) above sea level, and its greatest ascertained depth is 270 feet (82 metres). 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