electromagnetic radiation environmental pollution and health
Our first position was that the world does not realize the seriousness of the electromagnetic pollution problem that exists today, and our scientists have been searching for ways of protecting us if this problem continues to exist. To date, no adverse health effects have been established as being caused by mobile phone use. In particular, for the in vitro research, however, there is a problem to separate thermal effects from other effects because of difficulties to design the dosimetry such that temperature is unaffected. , Elliott P, Shaddick G, Walls P, Thakrar B. D
The fields from base stations that people experience, on the other hand, are much weaker; they are in fact several orders of magnitude below the guideline levels.  Most UV light from the sun is filtered out by the atmosphere and consequently airline pilots often have high rates of cataracts because of the increased levels of UV radiation in the upper atmosphere. A
The World Health Organization began a research effort in 1996 to study the health effects from the ever-increasing exposure of people to a diverse range of EMR sources. While these fields differ with respect to strengths and physical characteristics, they all give rise to concern among those exposed about the possibility of health risks. For example, the radio emissions from transmission lines have occasionally caused shocks to construction workers from nearby equipment, causing OSHA to establish standards for proper handling. Hardell
This research area is still in a very premature state and the results of the published studies are of limited interest.
It is well known that exposure to strong fields can result in acute effects, such as burns; the mechanisms behind such effects are well established. Some government health authorities have recently taken steps to reduce public exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation by regulating use of wireless devices by children and recommending preferential use of wired communication devices in general, but this ought to be a coordinated international effort. Possible effects of Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) on Human Health 2 About the Scientific Committees Three independent non-food Scientific Committees provide the Commission with the scientific advice it needs when preparing policy and proposals relating to consumer safety, public health and the environment. The IEEE and many national governments have established safety limits for exposure to various frequencies of electromagnetic energy based on SAR, mainly based on ICNIRP Guidelines, which guard against thermal damage. NA
Therefore all living creatures including plants, microbes, animals and humans are environmental indicators of exposure to electromagnetic radiation. 7% of volunteers exposed to power-frequency electric fields of high-power, extremely-low-frequency RF with electric field levels in the low kV/m range reported painful currents that flowed to ground through a body contact surface such as the feet, or arced to ground where the body was well insulated. Health and electromagnetic fields EU-funded research into the impact of electromagnetic fields and mobile telephones on health KI-70-05-528-EN-C There is much public concern about the issues surrounding the eﬀ ects of electromagnetic ﬁ elds on health – in particular, the potential health eﬀ ects of mobile telephones.  The risk related to fueling is known as Hazards of Electromagnetic Radiation to Fuel (HERF). Utility of telephone company records for epidemiologic studies of cellular telephones. Hypersensitivity magnetic radiation shielding microwave radiation detection radiation safe airtube headset cell phones and health risks of cell phones qlink. However, at a sufficiently high energy level, shortwave energy can be harmful to human health, potentially causing damage to biological tissues. Electromagnetic radiation can exert an aversive behavioral response in rats, bats and birds such as sparrows. , Loughlin JE, Funch DP, Dreyer NA.
The Sun's UV output is divided into UV-A and UV-B: solar UV-A flux is 100 times that of UV-B, but the erythema response is 1,000 times higher for UV-B. Therefore microwave and radiofrequency pollution constitutes a potential cause for the decline of animal populations and deterioration of health of plants living near phone masts. The current scientific situation is one of uncertainty and it is often pointed out that the existence of risks cannot be excluded. In contrast, ionizing radiation carries enough energy to break chemical bonds. The most common health hazard of radiation is sunburn, which causes between approximately 100,000 and 1 million new skin cancers annually in the United States. , Loughlin JE, Rothman KJ. Normally this is converted to visible light by the phosphor film inside a protective coating. The radiation energy is directly proportional to the frequency, as described by Planck’s law. Environmental Pollution 3. Electromagnetic radiation is perhaps the most serious form of environmental pollution we face in modern times. Risk of severe cardiac arrhythmia in male utility workers: nationwide Danish cohort study. Guidelines for limiting exposure to time-varying electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields (up to 300 GHz). Overall, some health effects are observed at a high levels of RF radiation, but the effects aren't clear at low levels of exposure. ", Characterization of 60GHz Millimeter-Wave Focusing Beam for Living-Body Exposure Experiments, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Masaki KOUZAI et al., 2009, "Cutaneous effects of infrared radiation: from clinical observations to molecular response mechanisms", "Biological effects and medical applications of infrared radiation", "An Overview of the LED and Laser Classification System in EN 60825-1 and IEC 60825-1", "What is the minimum safe distance from the welding arc above which there is no risk of eye damage?
2019 Dec;117(6):648-655. doi: 10.1097/HP.0000000000001112. A
At the same time everyone would agree that modern society is inconceivable without electricity. Photo : Alistair McIntyre, Pixabay. Practically every new invention adds something to electromagnetic radiation pollution. This was based on physiological experiments which noted that ELF magnetic fields appeared to affect heart rate variability6. The first few of these replications addressed a variety of cancer types and also total cancer, but later studies have increasingly focused on childhood leukaemia. Adult and childhood leukemia near a high-power radio station in Rome, Italy. Most of this research was directed towards other forms of cancer: brain tumours, leukaemia in adults, and male and female breast cancer are the forms that have attracted the greatest interest. There are, however, some as yet unconfirmed results that warrant further follow up. Due to the widespread use of these techniques and the very prevalent exposure to some of the types of field involved, even a weak association with disease risk could have strong impacts on public health. , Chou C-K, Morgan R, Balzano Q, Guy AW, Funch DP, Preston-Martin S, Mandel J, Steffens R, Carlo G. Assessment of cellular telephone and other radio frequency exposure for epidemiologic research. The present studies were taken to estimate the microwave/RF pollution by measuring radiation power densities near schools and hospitals of Chandigarh city in India. “Standard: Pollution, Asbestos, Electromagnetic fields. Radio frequency (RF) energy at power density levels of 1–10 mW/cm2 or higher can cause measurable heating of tissues. The internal SAR cannot be measured directly inside the body, but is established based on models and theoretical calculations. At the lower end of the electromagnetic spectrum, it is customary to refer to the frequency, while at the upper end one usually uses wavelength. An inherent problem in these studies that remains to be solved is exposure assessment around base stations25. As a consequence, such fields essentially pass through the body without depositing any energy. B
 Short-term exposure can be beneficial (activating protective responses), while prolonged exposure can lead to photoaging. L
Thus, this is in essence a new research field. Chances are you’re probably sitting in an electromagnetic field (EMF) at this very moment. Environmental RF fields are characterized by their power density, measured as Watt per square metre (W/m2). air at 3.0 MV/m). Cellular and cordless telephones and the risk for brain tumors. However, according to the Environmental Literacy Council, ionized radiation that occurs from n… As for fields used by telecommunications technology, there is still considerably fewer data available and for the time being there is only very weak support for the existence of health effects. This risk is commonly referred to as Hazards of Electromagnetic Radiation to Ordnance (HERO) by the United States Navy (USN). The studies have generally been of increasing methodological strengths, particularly with respect to assessment of magnetic field exposure but also with respect to selection bias and other methodological aspects. The Committees also draw the Commission's attention to the new or emerging problems … . Outside the cancer field, cardiovascular disease may be the area that has attracted most of the interest. Due to potentially catastrophic losses and high clean up costs, product liability insurance contracts frequently exclude, whether partially or completely, the insured’s liability for asbestos, pollution and contamination, radiation and electromagnetic fields. Studies are being run to examine cells and determine if EM exposure can cause detrimental effects. , Feychting M. Re: Use of cellular phones and the risk of brain tumours: a case-control study [letter]. Tall, cellular antennas on school roofs will be a less common sight in Vancouver, BC, thanks to a groundbreaking decision by the Vancouver School Board (VSB). , Hietanen M, Luukkonen R, Riitta-Sisko K. Brain tumors and salivary gland cancers among cellular telephone users. Ultraviolet Radiation Carcinogenesis", "Radiofrequency Energy Poses Unseen Hazard", "Acquisition Safety – Radio Frequency Radiation (RFR) Hazards", "Questions and Answers about Biological Effects and Potential Hazards of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields", "Standard for Safety Level with Respect to Human Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields, 3KHz to 300GHz", "Guidelines for limiting exposure to time-varying electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields (up to 300 GHz). Unlike the ELF area there is no seminal study with clear positive results that drives the research.  A measure of the heating effect is the specific absorption rate or SAR, which has units of watts per kilogram (W/kg).
Animal studies are being used to look for effects impacting more complex physiologies that are similar to humans. Given the small amount of energy that is deposited in connection with exposure to ELF fields, any health effects due to weak long-term exposure would have to be produced by a to-date unknown biophysical mechanism. P
Is electromagnetic radiation really safe? Chemical pollution in bodies of water contributes to illnesses. , Tarone RE, Hatch EE, Wilcosky TC, Shapiro WR, Selker RG, Fine HA, Black PM, Loeffler JS, Linet MS. Cellular-telephone use and brain tumors. All high power transmitters. , Shortwave (1.6 to 30 MHz) diathermy can be used as a therapeutic technique for its analgesic effect and deep muscle relaxation, but has largely been replaced by ultrasound. , Cook MR, Graham C. Nocturnal exposure to intermittent 60-Hz magnetic fields alters human cardiac rhythm. We refer to this as RF (radiofrequency). being influenced to a great degree by electromagnetic pollution. Epidemiologic evidence on health risks of cellular telephones. The dilemma is that very few people are exposed at high levels and that the disease for which there is the hardest evidence is very rare. So the decision maker would have to balance the public health benefits and the costs and technical and practical consequences of various schemes that could be considered in order to reduce exposure to the population. P
, Liao D, Sastre A et al. Electromagnetic fields are ubiquitous in modern society. Electromagnetic Fields and Breast Cancer. A person's body temperature can be raised which could result in death if exposed to high dosage of RF radiation. , Cooper J, Swygert L. Investigation of increased incidence in childhood leukemia near radio towers in Hawaii: preliminary observations. The human activities that may release radiation … On the other hand, the evidence for a risk is at present very weak—bordering on non-existent. Sastre
Instead, the driving force appears to be a concern that this new technology penetrates the world population at high speed and therefore warrants close monitoring. The UV-B flux is 2–4 times greater during the middle 4–6 hours of the day, and is not significantly absorbed by cloud cover or up to a meter of water. Hardell
Handheld cellular telephone use and the risk of brain cancer. Examples are recommendations to use hands-free equipment and to limit calls as much as possible. When the film is cracked by mishandling or faulty manufacturing then UV may escape at levels that could cause sunburn or even skin cancer. For example, touching or standing around an antenna while a high-power transmitter is in operation can cause severe burns. Use of electricity and telecommunications are the technologies that have caused most of the current concern regarding possible health risks and for which most research is available. January 6, 2021 Increasing exposures to non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation, including the radiofrequency radiation, is at the center of a long-standing dispute over the dangers to human health and the environment. EMF radiation is an ever increasing environmental pollutant. EHS has no scientific basis and is not a recognised medical diagnosis. Electromagnetic fields and/or electromagnetic radiation. KJ
Electromagnetic fields are associated with several of the factors that are known to produce public concern.
Cancer incidence near radio and television transmitters in Great Britain. To assess the overall evidence, a pooled analysis was carried out4 based on primary data from the sub group of nine studies fulfilling certain quality criteria.  The FCC limits for maximum permissible workplace exposure to shortwave radio frequency energy in the range of 3–30 MHz has a plane-wave equivalent power density of (900/f2) mW/cm2 where f is the frequency in MHz, and 100 mW/cm2 from 0.3–3.0 MHz. , Rothman KJ, Loughlin JE, Dreyer NA. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. United States Military Standard 464A (MIL-STD-464A) mandates assessment of HERO in a system, but USN document OD 30393 provides design principles and practices for controlling electromagnetic hazards to ordnance. It is well established that strong fields can give rise to acute health effects, such as burns, but exposure guidelines and regulations protect effectively against such effects. Despite this, researchers have been intrigued by this possibility. , Feychting M, Möller M et al. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. This technology typically uses frequencies from 450 up 2500 MHz, although new technology will extend this band upwards. , Boice JD, McLaughlin JK, Olsen JH. The actual field levels that people encounter in connection with mobile phone use produce SAR values below the basic restrictions, although of the same order of magnitude. , Ultraviolet radiation of wavelengths shorter than 300 nm (actinic rays) can damage the corneal epithelium.
 Likewise WiGig for personal area networks have opened the 60 GHz and above microwave band to SAR exposure regulations. We declare no competing interests. Such fields usually have a frequency of 50 or 60 Hz. – Summary of health effects", "Embryological changes induced by weak, extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields", "Environmental magnetic fields inhibit the antiproliferative action of tamoxifen and melatonin in a human breast cancer cell line", 10.1002/(SICI)1521-186X(1997)18:8<555::AID-BEM4>3.0.CO;2-1, "Mobile phone affects cerebral blood flow in humans", "Microwave frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) produce widespread neuropsychiatric effects including depression", Extremely Low Frequency Fields Environmental Health Criteria Monograph No.238, https://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancer-causes/radiation-exposure/extremely-low-frequency-radiation.html, "Gaps in Knowledge Relevant to the "Guidelines for Limiting Exposure to Time-Varying Electric and Magnetic Fields (1 Hz-100 kHz), "Biological effects and mechanisms of shortwave radiation: a review", "IARC classifies radiofrequency electromagnetic fields as possibly carcinogenic to humans", International Agency for Research on Cancer, "Electromagnetic fields and public health: mobile phones – Fact sheet N°193", Limits of Human Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields in the Frequency Range from 3 kHz to 300 GHz, "Radio-Frequency and Microwave Energies, Magnetic and Electric Fields", "Smartphone Radiation: iPhones Emitting Double Reported Levels", http://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancer-causes/radiation-exposure/radiofrequency-radiation.html, "Is That Airport Security Scanner Really Safe? Perhaps to the surprise of the scientific community, the later studies to a great extent confirmed the original finding, although the results have certainly not been identical and indeed some studies failed to find any association. Whereas early research has looked at people with occupational RF exposure (e.g.  Note that the lens filters UV light, so if it is removed via surgery, one may be able to see UV light. , In the United States, nonionizing radiation is regulated in the Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act of 1968 and the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. This is why welders wear tinted glasses and surrounding workers only have to wear clear ones that filter UV. Health Hazards Of Electromagnetic Radiation, 2Nd Edition: A Startling Look At The Effects Of Electropollution On Your Health [Fife, Bruce] on Amazon.com. Savitz
*FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.  UV rays can also cause wrinkles, liver spots, moles, and freckles. That means that there "could be some risk" of carcinogenicity, so additional research into the long-term, heavy use of mobile phones needs to be conducted.
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